Flexibility - Are We Hurting Kids?
Flexibility remains a mysterious avenue within the sport industry, cluttered with myths, half-truths and opinion.
Questions purvey in many trainers’, coaches’, and parents’ minds as to the type of flexibility training
one should perform, when they should perform it, and for how long. Of critical importance to this conundrum is the young athlete
and how flexibility training should be applied to this demographic. This article will not answer every question you may have,
but it will shed some light on a few key points.
The scope of confusion regarding flexibility can be seen when considering
the assessment tools most commonly used to test one’s suppleness. The standard ‘sit & reach’ test is
most often incorporated into pre-training assessments as the ‘flexibility test’. In fairness, many coaches and
trainers I have worked with cite the fact that the sit & reach is an indirect assessment of flexibility at best, and does
not give a truly accurate picture as to the ‘global’ suppleness an athlete may posses considering that flexibility
is joint specific. Also, it does not allow us to assess any dynamic qualities, which is important because static flexibility
is quite different than dynamic flexibility, and dynamic flexibility is critically more important in sport.
of flexibility a joint exhibits is not entirely determined by the tightness or pliancy of the muscles that act on that joint.
While elasticity of the muscle is a key component to flexibility, so is the elasticity of the corresponding ligaments and
even the emotional state of the individual. Additionally, the physical length of a muscle can play a very large role in determining
the flexibility or ROM of a joint. Muscle length is largely determined by genetics, but can also be positively influenced
through strength training. This certainly contradicts a common myth that strength or resistance training INHIBITS flexibility.
Furthermore, as the elasticity of a muscle reduces with age (which we generally accept as true), strength training can also
positively influence this concern. Yes... Strength training has a positive impact on flexibility and suppleness! In fact,
when working with younger athletes, basic static stretching habits can increase the length of a ligament and lead to joint
instability. This can lead to poor posture and increased dependence on muscles for joint stability. Strength and flexibility
(through full ROM) must work hand-in-hand to ensure optimal development and decreased injury occurrence.
of young athletes, flexibility develops in correspondence with growth. In terms of training, type, frequency and duration
also change with age -
Ages 6 - 10:
Hip and shoulder mobility declines, resulting in the need for dynamic
ROM exercises within these two joints (multidirectional raises and rotations). Maximum flexibility of the spine is reached
by the age of 8 or 9 - increases beyond normal ROM can be made, but is unnecessary and considered potentially harmful.
this age group, STATIC STRETCHING SHOULD BE AVOIDED. Excitement within the nervous system is much more pronounced than inhibition,
which means that kids this age cannot truly execute a held stretch. They cannot gain the appropriate feedback from their body
needed to ensure the safety and optimal effectiveness of the stretch.
Additionally, Isometric stretches (as found
in Yoga) should also be avoided completely in this age category. These kinds of stretches may increase the resting tone of
a muscle, which can negatively affect movement skill and coordination. Remember - Fitness fads come and go, but the critical
science of athletic development and human physiology is what it is. Yoga has its place to be sure (although I know many skeptics
who disagree with that), but coordination and movement MUST dominate this age bracket.
Ages 10 - 13:
incur gains of body mass at a quicker rate than gains in height at this age, which leads to an increase in strength. Flexibility
training should intensify in this age category. Increases in strength and changes in body mass can combine and lead to poor
biomechanical habits - most critically in not using full ROM during movement. Ensure that kids incorporate full ROM and dynamic
exercises into their training.
Ages 13 - 15:
Height can increase as much as one inch per month during the growth
spurt. Muscles and supporting connective tissue do not grow as quickly as bone, which can result in general pain throughout
the body. Flexibility training can and should target the areas most prone to pain - this would include quadriceps, hamstrings
and muscles of the lumbar spine specifically. Poor posture, reduced movement skill and injury are all potential concerns of
rapid growth, but can be limited with appropriate flexibility habits.
Now is the time to start adding
sport-specific means of flexibility training into an athlete=s routine.
Flexibility, especially with young athletes,
is not at all just a matter of ‘stretching out’ before or after practice. Hope this article shed some light on
a few things for you!
About the Author: Known as 'America's Youth Fitness Coach', Brian Grasso spends all his time
training young athletes, children with disabilities and those encumbered with body weight concerns.
He has authored
two books on the subject and was recently featured in Newsweek magazine for his work in youth fitness and sports training.
He has also been named as one of the 'Top 100 Trainers in America' by Men's Health magazine.
Brian is the Founder and
CEO of the International Youth Conditioning Association and can be contacted through his website - www.DevelopingAthletics.com
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